MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE (MAC)
To view the entire Local Coverage Determination (LCD) for Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC), please refer to the Web page:
With advances in modern medical technology, there has been a shift in supplying some surgical and diagnostic services to an ambulatory, outpatient or office setting. Accompanying this, there has been a change in the provision of anesthesia services from the traditional general anesthetic to a combination of anxiolytic, hypnotic, amnestic and analgesic drugs. Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) is a specific anesthesia service for a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. Indications for monitored anesthesia care include the nature of the procedure, the patient’s clinical condition and/or the potential need to convert to a general or regional anesthetic.
Indications and Limitations of Coverage and/or Medical Necessity
In keeping with the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ standards for monitoring, MAC should be provided by qualified anesthesia personnel in accordance with individual state licensure. These individuals must be continuously present to monitor the patient and provide anesthesia care.
During MAC, the patient’s oxygenation, ventilation, circulation and temperature should be evaluated by whatever methods are deemed most suitable by the attending anesthetist. It is anticipated that newer methods of non-invasive monitoring such as pulse oximetry and capnography will be frequently relied upon. Close monitoring is necessary to anticipate the need for general anesthesia administration or for the treatment of adverse physiologic reactions such as hypotension, excessive pain, difficulty breathing, arrhythmias, adverse drug reactions, etc. In addition, the possibility that the surgical procedure may become more extensive, and/or result in unforeseen complications, requires comprehensive monitoring and/or anesthetic intervention.
The following CMS requirements for this type of anesthesia should be the same as for general anesthesia with regard to:
The performance of pre-anesthetic examination and evaluation.
The prescription of the anesthesia care required.
The completion of an anesthesia record.
The administration of necessary medications and the provision of indicated postoperative anesthesia care.